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In the quest for a more sustainable lifestyle, terms like “biodegradable” and “compostable” frequently come up. While these terms are often used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings and implications for environmental sustainability. This article explores the differences between biodegradable and compostable materials, their benefits, and how to make informed choices to reduce your environmental footprint.

What Does Biodegradable Mean?


Biodegradable materials are those that can be broken down by natural processes, such as bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms, into water, carbon dioxide, and biomass. This process can occur in various environments, including landfills, soil, and water.


  • Natural Breakdown: Biodegradable materials decompose naturally over time, reducing their impact on the environment.
  • Varied Decomposition Time: The rate of decomposition can vary widely depending on the material and environmental conditions. Some biodegradable materials may take months, while others may take years to fully break down.
  • Material Types: Common biodegradable materials include paper, wood, certain plastics, and organic waste like food scraps.

What Does Compostable Mean?


Compostable materials are a subset of biodegradable materials that break down under specific conditions into nutrient-rich compost, which can enhance soil health. Compostable materials typically require a controlled composting environment to decompose effectively.


  • Nutrient-Rich Output: Compostable materials decompose into compost, which can be used to enrich soil and support plant growth.
  • Specific Conditions Required: Effective composting usually requires a balance of moisture, oxygen, and temperature. Industrial composting facilities can provide these conditions, but home composting systems may also be sufficient for certain materials.
  • Material Types: Common compostable materials include food waste, yard waste, compostable plastics, and certain types of paper and cardboard.

Key Differences Between Biodegradable and Compostable

Decomposition Process

  • Biodegradable: Breaks down through natural processes in various environments. The end products are typically water, carbon dioxide, and biomass.
  • Compostable: Breaks down into nutrient-rich compost under specific conditions. The process usually involves controlled composting environments that manage moisture, temperature, and oxygen levels.

Environmental Impact

  • Biodegradable: While biodegradable materials reduce waste, the decomposition process can sometimes produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas, especially in anaerobic (low-oxygen) landfill conditions.
  • Compostable: Compostable materials enhance soil health by adding nutrients back into the soil. The controlled composting process minimizes the production of harmful gases and promotes efficient decomposition.

Certification and Standards

  • Biodegradable: There is no standardized certification for biodegradable materials, leading to variability in how quickly and completely materials decompose.
  • Compostable: Compostable materials often come with certifications from organizations like the Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) or TÜV Austria, ensuring they meet specific standards for compostability.

Pros and Cons of Biodegradable and Compostable Materials

Environmental Impact✔️ Reduces waste but can produce methane in landfills✔️ Enhances soil health and minimizes harmful emissions
Decomposition Time❌ Varies widely, sometimes taking years✔️ Typically decomposes faster under controlled conditions
Conditions Required❌ Decomposes in various environments, but efficiency varies✔️ Requires specific composting conditions for best results
Certification❌ Lack of standardized certification✔️ Often certified by reputable organizations
End Product✔️ Breaks down into water, CO2, and biomass✔️ Turns into nutrient-rich compost

How to Choose Between Biodegradable and Compostable Products

Consider Your Disposal Options

  • Biodegradable Products: Choose biodegradable products if you lack access to composting facilities or if the product is likely to end up in environments where natural decomposition is possible, such as soil or water.
  • Compostable Products: Opt for compostable products if you have access to a composting facility or a home composting system. This ensures that the materials will decompose efficiently and contribute positively to soil health.

Look for Certifications

When purchasing compostable products, look for certifications from reputable organizations like the BPI or TÜV Austria. These certifications ensure that the products meet strict standards for compostability.

Understand the Product’s Lifecycle

Consider the entire lifecycle of the product, from production to disposal. Compostable products generally have a more beneficial end-of-life scenario, as they contribute to soil health. However, both biodegradable and compostable products can reduce environmental impact compared to conventional plastics and other non-degradable materials.

Evaluate Your Environmental Goals

Your specific environmental goals can also guide your choice. If your primary goal is to reduce landfill waste, compostable products may be the better option. If you aim to minimize the use of synthetic materials and promote natural decomposition, biodegradable products can be a suitable choice.


Understanding the differences between biodegradable and compostable materials is crucial for making informed, sustainable choices. Both types of materials offer significant environmental benefits compared to conventional, non-degradable products. Biodegradable materials provide the advantage of breaking down naturally in various environments, while compostable materials offer the added benefit of producing nutrient-rich compost that enhances soil health.

By considering factors such as disposal options, certifications, and environmental goals, you can choose the most suitable products to reduce your ecological footprint. Embracing biodegradable and compostable materials is a positive step towards a more sustainable future, helping to protect our planet for generations to come.